برای سحر که وقت نداشت اینها را پیدا کند

  

Electron  "cloud                                                      

Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961) developed an “Electron Cloud Model” in 1926.  It consisted of a dense nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons at various levels in orbitals.   Schrödinger  and Werner Heisenburg (1901-1976) mathematically determined regions in which electrons would be most likely found.   The probability of the finding the electrons in the orbitals are sometimes referred to as “lobes.” They used the mathematical equations for the behavior of waves following the work on waves by Louis de Broglie (1892-1987) a French theorist

Electrons can be described by waves, with each electron in a particular state having a particular wavelength and energy. It should be possible therefore to express electrons in atoms, with their discrete energy levels, in terms of waves. Schrodingers model pictures the electron moving around the atom, with a whole number of wavelengths fitted into one orbit, the electron moving in three dimensions. More technically, the electrons are described by standing waves whose wavefunctions that fit the boundary conditions in the atom. Some possible standing waves of electrons are shown schematically below. The continuous curves represent the wave representing the electron, and the dotted lines represent the wave describing the atom half a cycle later.

http://www.msnucleus.org/

http://astarmathsandphysics.com